Thursday, March 19, 2020
Glossary of Holocaust Terms to Know A tragic and important part of world history, it is important to understand what theÃ HolocaustÃ entailed, how it came to be and who were the major actors. When studying the Holocaust, one can come across numerous terms in many different languages as the Holocaust affected people from all sorts of backgrounds, be it German, Jewish, Roma and so on. This glossary lists slogans, code names, names of important people, dates, slang words and more to help you understand these terms in alphabetical order. A Words Aktion is a term used for any non-military campaign to further Nazi ideals of race, but most often referred to the assembly and deportation of Jews to concentration or death camps. Aktion Reinhard was the code name for the annihilation of European Jewry. It was named after Reinhard Heydrich. Aktion T-4 was the code name for the Nazis Euthanasia Program. The name was taken from the Reich Chancellery buildings address, Tiergarten Strasse 4. Aliya meansÃ immigration in Hebrew. It refers to the Jewish immigration into Palestine and, later, Israel through official channels. Aliya Bet meansÃ illegal immigration in Hebrew. This was the Jewish immigration into Palestine and Israel without official immigration certificates nor with British approval. During the Third Reich, Zionist movements set up organizations to plan and implement these flights from Europe, such asÃ Exodus 1947. Anschluss meansÃ linkage in German. In the context of World War II, the word refers to the German annexation of Austria on March 13, 1938. Anti-semitism is a prejudice against Jews. Appell meansÃ roll call in German. Within the camps, inmates were forced to stand at attention for hours at least twice a day while they were counted. This was always carried out no matter what the weather and often lasted for hours. It was also often accompanied by beatings and punishments. Appellplatz translates toÃ place for roll call in German. It was the location within the camps where the Appell was carried out. Arbeit Macht Frei is a phrase in German that meansÃ work makes one free. A sign with this phrase on it was placed by Rudolf HÃ ¶ss over the gates of Auschwitz. Asocial was one of the several categories of people targeted by the Nazi regime. People in this category included homosexuals, prostitutes, Gypsies (Roma)Ã and thieves. AuschwitzÃ was the largest and most infamous of the Nazis concentration camps. Located near Oswiecim, Poland, Auschwitz was divided into 3 main camps, at which an estimated 1.1 million people were murdered. B Words Babi YarÃ is the event in whichÃ the Germans killed all the Jews in Kiev on September 29 and 30, 1941. This was done in retaliation for the bombing of German administration buildings in occupied Kiev between September 24 and 28, 1941. During these tragic days, Kiev Jews, Gypsies (Roma) and Soviet prisoners of war were taken to the Babi Yar ravine and shot. An estimated 100,000 people were killed at this location. Blut und Boden is a German phrase that translates toÃ blood and soil. This was a phrase used by Hitler to mean that all people of German blood have the right and duty to live on German soil. Bormann, MartinÃ (June 17, 1900 - ?) was Adolf Hitlers personal secretary. Since he controlled access to Hitler, he was considered one of the most powerful men in the Third Reich. He liked to work behind the scenes and to stay out of the public spotlight, earning him the nicknames the Brown Eminence and the man in the shadows. Hitler viewed him as an absolute devotee, but Bormann had high ambitions and kept his rivals from having access to Hitler. While he was in the bunker during Hitlers last days, he left the bunker on May 1, 1945. His future fate has become one of the unsolved mysteries of this century. Hermann GÃ ¶ring was his sworn enemy. Bunker is aÃ slang word for Jews hiding places within the ghettos. C Words Comite de Defense des Juifs is French forÃ Jewish Defense Committee. It was an underground movement in Belgium established in 1942. D Words Death March refers to the long, forced marches of concentration camp prisoners from one camp to another closer to Germany as the Red Army approached from the east in the last few months of World War II. Dolchstoss meansÃ a stab in the back in German. A popular myth at the time claimed that the German military had not been defeated in World War I, but that the Germans had been stabbed in the back by Jews, socialists, and liberals who forced them to surrender. E Words EndlÃ ¶sung means Final Solution in German. This was the name of the Nazis program to kill every Jew in Europe. Ermchtigungsgesetz meansÃ The Enabling Law in German. The Enabling Law was passed March 24, 1933, and allowed Hitler and his government to create new laws that did not have to agree with the German constitution. In essence, this law gave Hitler dictatorial powers. Eugenics is the social Darwinist principle of strengthening the qualities of a race by controlling inherited characteristics. The term was coined by Francis Galton in 1883. Eugenics experiments were done during the Nazi regime on people who were deemed life unworthy of life. Euthanasia Program was a Nazi-created program in 193 that was to secretly but systematically kill mentally and physically disabled people, including Germans, who were housed in institutions. The code name for this program was Aktion T-4. It is estimated that over 200,000 people were killed in the Nazi Euthanasia Program. G Words Genocide is the deliberate and systematic killing an entire people. Gentile is aÃ term referring to someone who is not Jewish. Gleichschaltung meansÃ coordination in German and refers to the act of reorganizing all social, political and cultural organizations to be controlled and run according to Nazi ideology and policy. H Words Haavara was the transfer agreement between Jewish leaders from Palestine and the Nazis. Hftlingspersonalbogen refers to prisoner registration forms at the camps. Hess, RudolfÃ (April 26, 1894 - August 17, 1987) was deputy to the FÃ ¼hrer and successor-designate after Hermann GÃ ¶ring. He played an important role in using geopolitics to gain land. He was also involved in the Anschluss of Austria and the administration of the Sudetenland. A devoted worshipper of Hitler, Hess flew to Scotland on May 10, 1940 (without the FÃ ¼hrers approval) to a plea for Hitlers favor in an effort to make a peace agreement with Britain. Britain and Germany denounced him as crazy and sentenced to life imprisonment. The sole prisoner at Spandau after 1966, he was found in his cell, hung with an electric cord at age 93 in 1987. Himmler, HeinrichÃ (October 7, 1900 - May 21, 1945) was head of the SS, the Gestapo, and the German police. Under his direction, the SS grew into a massive so-called racially pure Nazi elite. He was in charge of the concentration camps and believed that the liquidation of the unhealthy and bad genes from society would help better and purify the Aryan race. In April 1945, he tried to negotiate a peace with the Allies, bypassing Hitler. For this, Hitler expelled him from the Nazi Party and from all offices he held. On May 21, 1945, he attempted to escape but was stopped and held by the British. After his identity was discovered, he swallowed a hidden cyanide pill that was noticed by an examining doctor. He died 12 minutes later. J Words Jude meansÃ Jew in German, and this word often appeared on the Yellow Stars that Jews were forced to wear. Judenfrei meansÃ free of Jews in German. It was a popular phrase under the Nazi regime. Judengelb meansÃ Jewish yellow in German. It was a term for the yellow Star of David badge that Jews were ordered to wear. Judenrat, orÃ Judenrte in plural, means Jewish council in German. This term referred to a group of Jews who enacted the German laws in the ghettos. Juden raus! meansÃ Jews out! in German. A dreaded phrase, it was shouted by the Nazis throughout the ghettos when they were trying to force Jews from their hiding places. Die Juden sind unser UnglÃ ¼ck! translates toÃ The Jews Are Our Misfortune in German. This phrase was often found in the Nazi-propaganda newspaper,Ã Der Stuermer. Judenrein meansÃ cleansed of Jews in German. K Words KapoÃ is aÃ position of leadership for a prisoner in one of the Nazi concentration camps, which entailed collaborating with the Nazis to help run the camp. Kommando were labor squads made up of camp prisoners. Kristallnacht, orÃ Night of Broken Glass, occurred on November 9 and 10, 1938. The Nazis initiated a pogrom against Jews in retaliation for the assassination of Ernst vom Rath. L Words Lagersystem was the system of camps that supported the death camps. Lebensraum meansÃ living space in German. The Nazis believed that there should be areas attributed to only one race and that the Aryans needed more living space. This became one of the Nazis chief objectives and shaped their foreign policy; the Nazis believed they could gain more space by conquering and colonizing the East. Lebensunwertes Lebens meansÃ life unworthy of life in German. This term derived from the work The Permission to Destroy Life Unworthy of Life (Die Freigabe der Vernichtung lebensunwerten Lebens) by Karl Binding and Alfred Hoche, published in 1920. This work was referring to the mentally and physically handicapped and regarded the killing of these segments of society as a healing treatment. This term and this work became a base for the right of the state to kill unwanted segments of the population. Lodz GhettoÃ wasÃ a ghetto established in Lodz, PolandÃ on February 8,Ã 1940. The 230,000 Jews of Lodz were ordered into the ghetto. On May 1, 1940, the ghetto was sealed. Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski, who had been appointed the Elder of the Jews, attempted to save the ghetto by making it a cheap and valuable industrial center to the Nazis. Deportations began in January 1942 and the ghetto was liquidated by August 1944. M Words Machtergreifung meansÃ seizure of power in German. The term was used when referring to the Nazis seizure of power in 1933. Mein KampfÃ is the two-volume book written by Adolf Hitler. The first volume wasÃ written during his time in Landsberg Prison and published in July 1925. The book became a staple of Nazi culture during the Third Reich. Mengele, JosefÃ (March 16, 1911 - February 7, 1979?) was a Nazi doctor at Auschwitz who was notorious for his medical experiments on twins and dwarves. MuselmannÃ was aÃ slang term used in the Nazi concentration camps for a prisoner who had lost the will to live and was thus just one step from being dead. O Words Operation Barbarossa was the code name for the surprise German attack on the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941, which broke the Soviet-Nazi Non-Aggression Pact and plunged the Soviet Union into World War II. Operation Harvest Festival was the code name for the liquidation and mass killings of the remaining Jews in the Lublin area that occurred on November 3, 1943. An estimated 42,000 people were shot while loud music was played to drown out the shootings. It was the last Aktion of Aktion Reinhard. Ordnungsdienst meansÃ order service in German and refers to the ghetto police, which was made up of Jewish ghetto residents. To organize was camp slang for prisoners acquiring materials illicitly from the Nazis. Ostara was aÃ series of anti-Semitic pamphlets published by Lanz von Liebenfels between 1907 and 1910. Hitler bought these regularly and in 1909, Hitler sought out Lanz and asked for back copies. Oswiecim, Poland was the town where the Nazi death camp Auschwitz was built. P Words PorajmosÃ meansÃ the Devouring in Romani. It was a term used by the Roma (Gypsies) for the Holocaust. Roma was among the victims of the Holocaust. S Words Sonderbehandlung, orÃ SB for short, means special treatment in German. It was a code word used for the methodical killing of Jews. T Words Thanatology is the science of producing death. This was the description given during the Nuremberg trials to the medical experiments performed during the Holocaust. V Words Vernichtungslager meansÃ extermination camp or death camp in German. W Words White Paper was issued by Great Britain on May 17, 1939, to limit the immigration to Palestine to 15,000 persons a year. After 5 years, no Jewish immigration was permitted unless with Arab consent. Z Words Zentralstelle fÃ ¼r JÃ ¼dische Auswanderung meansÃ Central Office for Jewish Emigration in German. It was set up in Vienna on August 26, 1938 under Adolf Eichmann. Zyklon BÃ was the poison gas used to kill millions of people in the gas chambers.
Monday, March 2, 2020
Tips for Understanding Spoken French There are dozens of French phonetics exercisesÃ for letters, words and expressions on ThoughtCo.com. Entries on these exercises lead to pages withÃ more and more detailed explanations, so keep on clicking through when prompted. They can be excellent resources for learning the basics of understanding spoken French. Also highly recommended areÃ the manyÃ self-study French audio magazines and audiobooksÃ on the market. These tools contain extensive longer texts with audio files and English translations that are excellent resources for understanding spoken French. For either phonetics lessons or French audio magazines and books, will you get better results if you listen first and then read the words, or is it better to listen and read at the same time? In fact, both of these methods are fine; its just a matter of deciding which one works best for you. Weve thought about how to make this process most effective and offer a few ideas here aimed at helping you make the most of audio exercises. Each of the sites oral exercises includes at a minimum a sound file and a translation. There are a few possible scenarios for using these to boost your oral comprehension; its up to you to decide which one to adopt. 1. Listen First If you want to test your aural comprehension and/or you feel comfortable with your listening skills, listen to the sound file one or more timesÃ to see how much you understand. Then to fill in any gaps, read the words, either before or while listening to the sound file again. 2. Read First Students who dont feel up to the challenge of listening first might be better off doing just the opposite: Read or skim through the words first to get an idea of what its about, and then listen to the sound file. You can listen while reading, or just listen and then go back to the words to see how much you were able to pick up. 3. Listen and Read This third option is best for students who have a hard time understanding spoken French. Open up the words in a new window, and then start the sound file so that you can follow the words as you listen. This will help your brain make the connection between what you are hearing and what it means. This is similar to watching a French movie while reading the English subtitles.Ã You Decide Which Method Works Best for You The listen first technique is the most challenging. If you feel confident thatÃ your listening skills are strong or youd like to test them, this method will be effective for you. Less advanced students, however, may find that listening first is too difficult and possibly frustrating. Thus, reading the words first will help you connect concept (the meaning) to sounds (the spoken language). If your listening skills are weak, you will probably find it helpful to see the words before or while youre listening.Ã No matter which method you choose, your goal here is to improve your listening comprehension. Just keep listening and checking the words as many times as it takes until you understand the sound file without looking at the words. With all three techniques, also try speaking the words yourself as you read the words. Why? Because the more senses you engage when youre learning, the deeper the memory pathways youll be etching in your brain and youll learn faster and retain longer. If you do these kinds of exercises regularly, your understanding of spoken French is bound to improve. Improve Your Comprehension of French You might decide that you need to improve in one, or more likely, several areas of French comprehension. Learning a language, after all, is a long process strewn with subtleties, one that even native speakers contend with. Theres always room for improvement. So decide which area you want to focus on and study a little more to refine your French. Do you want to: Improve your comprehension of spoken French, as weve been discussing hereImprove your French pronunciationImprove your French reading comprehensionImprove your French verb conjugationsImprove your French vocabulary
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Labour Law - Essay Example It is submitted at the outset that the issue remains contentious particularly in light of the continuous changes in working practices. From a statutory perspective, the legal definition of employee is described under Section 230(1) of the Employment Rights Act 1996 (ERA) as Ã¢â¬Å"an individual who has entered into or works underÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..a contract of employmentÃ¢â¬ . The section 230 definition has been criticised for being ambiguous (Honeyball & Bowers. 2006) and it is necessary to refer to the common law test for defining the status of employee. The statutory provision is bolstered by the Ready Mixed Concrete test (Ready Mixed Concrete (South East) Ltd v Minister of Pensions & National Insurance  2 QB 497), which requires an examination of the Ã¢â¬Å"overall pictureÃ¢â¬ (Jupp, 2005) The starting point for determining whether an individual is an employee is the Ã¢â¬Å"controlÃ¢â¬ test (Honeyball & Bowers. 2006). This was established in Yewens v Noakes (1880 6 Q.B.D. 530), where Bramwell LJ asserted that:Ã¢â¬Å"a servant is a person subject to the command of his master as to the manner in which he shall do his workÃ¢â¬ (at pp.532-533). However, socio-economic developments in the labour market have changed the shape of employment status, thereby undermining the suitability of the control test as a sole determinant of employment status (Pitt, G. 2007). This was further acknowledged by the Court of Appeal in Walker v Crystal Palace FC ( 1 KB 87), where the control test was given a different slant by focusing on whether the employer had the right to control the background arrangements for the work such as when and where the work was done, payments and holiday entitlements. However, the Walker extension of the control test was further developed into the Ã¢â¬Å"integrationÃ¢â¬ test as propounded by Lord Denning in the case of Stevenson Jordan and Harrison v MacDonald & Evans ( 1 TLR 101) Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦under a contract of service, a man is employed as part of the
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Military Personnal Experience Paper - Essay Example Humanitarian Efforts in Panama 2007 Mission Development At the request of the Panamanian government through the U.S. Embassy in Panama, the 961st Engineering Battalion was deployed to the country as the part of the forces with the intention of helping the Panamanian residents whose schools, churches, hospitals and other vital installations needed repair and maintenance work. Upon receiving this request, our team immediately set out to make recommendations for the commander in charge of the mission in reference to how the 961st could help make a difference during this mission. Our recommendations resulted in the following proof of concept missions: Ã¢â¬Å"The mission is to happen in 3 phases. The first phase is the planning stage which was to be completed at least 8 months before deployment and will require the operations engineers to survey the work areas and the equipment that shall be needed in order to complete the work. The second phase of the mission is the deployment itself whe rein the 961st would help coordinate all the units, missions, and security for soldiers assigned to this mission. The final phase of the mission will require the same battalion to return to Panama one year later in order to survey the work done in the previous year and do any repairs required to maintain the integrity of the work provided.Ã¢â¬ Mission Implementation Once the mission development and analysis was finalized and approved by the commanding officer, I was chosen to hand pick my team amongst the Army Reservists listed in the reserve program because of my leadership abilities and skills relevant to program policy and operations, plans and reserve component integration. I was directed to immediately plan the transfer of these officers from their home bases to our newly established company for the humanitarian mission. I accomplished this task by providing the personnel section with the mission requirements and transfer justification documents which resulted in the mobiliz ation station in Fort Lee, Virginia, allowing these reservists to have a temporary change of station order assigned to them. Upon their arrival at the 961st home base, those with the relevant engineering backgrounds were immediately deployed to Panama for the completion of phase one. Phase I: Damage and Repair Assessment Phase I was one of the engineers on the advanced party team that went to Panama. While there, I collaborated with other team members regarding the painstaking plans for repair of the damaged schools, churches and hospitals. We came to realize that this was not going to be an easy task to accomplish but with a proper team work and cooperation from our immediate officers we could make a change in these peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives that they would never forget. Phase II: Mission Deployment By providing the Panamanian government with the necessary plans and concerns for the development and repair of their various infrastructures they were able to make proper representations wi th the U.S. Government through the U.S. Embassy in reference to the necessary materials and budgets in order to make the humanitarian effort a reality. The engineers of the 961st were immediately deployed to Panama the minute the mission deployment papers were finally
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Qualitative Analysis Purpose: In this lab, we would tests the ions of Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, and Ba2+, and enable each to be identified separately. And by using these observations, we could also identify an unknown. We also would tests the ions of SO42-, CO32-, Cl-, and I-, that also enable each to be identified separately, and to be use to identify the unknown. Safety: Chemicals include toxic. Remember to wash hands after the experiment. Procedure Summary; Part I - Qualitative Analysis of Group 2 Elements We first mix 0.02M K2CrO4 with each Mg(NO3)2, Ca(NO3)2, Sr(NO3)2 and Ba(NO3)2 together. Secondly, we mix 0.1M (NH4)2C2O4 instead of 0.02M K2CrO4 together with the same reactants used before. Thirdly, we mix 0.1M Na2SO4 as the added reagent. Then, we mix 0.1M NaOH as the added reagent before. Precipitates should forms for some, and be recorded in Table 1 with observations. At last, we obtain an unknown solution to identify the cation by mixing it with the 4 reagents we used before. Part II- Qualitative Analysis of Selected Anions We first mix 1M HNO3 with each Na2CO3, Na2SO4, NaCl and NaI together. Repeat these steps by placing 0.1M Ba(NO3)2 instead of 1M HNO3. Then mix1M HNO3 for the onces that formed precipitates. Repeat the first step by placing 0.1M AgNO3 instead of 1M HNO3. Divded the contents of the ones that contains ppt in half, then add 6M NH3 to one set of them and for the other set add 1M HNO3. Using these observation, we obtain and identify an unknown union. All observations should be recorded in Table 2. Pre-lab Questions: 1. What is the difference between qualitative and quantitative analysis. Qualitative analysis is a set of procedures used to identify a particular ion or a sample. Quantitative analysis is used to identify the amount of ion presence in a solution. 2. What type of reaction will use to identify the cation in part I? Double replacement and precipitate-forming reaction will be used to Precipitation Test of Cations and Anions :: Chemistry Lab Qualitative Analysis Purpose: In this lab, we would tests the ions of Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, and Ba2+, and enable each to be identified separately. And by using these observations, we could also identify an unknown. We also would tests the ions of SO42-, CO32-, Cl-, and I-, that also enable each to be identified separately, and to be use to identify the unknown. Safety: Chemicals include toxic. Remember to wash hands after the experiment. Procedure Summary; Part I - Qualitative Analysis of Group 2 Elements We first mix 0.02M K2CrO4 with each Mg(NO3)2, Ca(NO3)2, Sr(NO3)2 and Ba(NO3)2 together. Secondly, we mix 0.1M (NH4)2C2O4 instead of 0.02M K2CrO4 together with the same reactants used before. Thirdly, we mix 0.1M Na2SO4 as the added reagent. Then, we mix 0.1M NaOH as the added reagent before. Precipitates should forms for some, and be recorded in Table 1 with observations. At last, we obtain an unknown solution to identify the cation by mixing it with the 4 reagents we used before. Part II- Qualitative Analysis of Selected Anions We first mix 1M HNO3 with each Na2CO3, Na2SO4, NaCl and NaI together. Repeat these steps by placing 0.1M Ba(NO3)2 instead of 1M HNO3. Then mix1M HNO3 for the onces that formed precipitates. Repeat the first step by placing 0.1M AgNO3 instead of 1M HNO3. Divded the contents of the ones that contains ppt in half, then add 6M NH3 to one set of them and for the other set add 1M HNO3. Using these observation, we obtain and identify an unknown union. All observations should be recorded in Table 2. Pre-lab Questions: 1. What is the difference between qualitative and quantitative analysis. Qualitative analysis is a set of procedures used to identify a particular ion or a sample. Quantitative analysis is used to identify the amount of ion presence in a solution. 2. What type of reaction will use to identify the cation in part I? Double replacement and precipitate-forming reaction will be used to
Friday, January 17, 2020
Abstract In this paper, my aim was to give a general overview of antisocial personality disorder so that I could broaden my understanding of this mental illness. I used textbook material, information from the DSM-5, and several outside sources to try to create a complete picture of the main points of the disorder, such as the causes development, symptoms, prognosis, prevalence, and treatment options for this disorder. I also looked into possible sociocultural influences on the development of the disorder, and consider whether or not it is a legitimate disorder that should be acknowledged by the mental health community. I conclude this work with a personal critique of what I have taken away from my research. Antisocial Personality Disorder: An Overview In order to be successful in any society, it is important to be able to abide by the rules that the society puts forth. While there are a lot of cultural differences about what is normal and what is not, one could venture to pick out some universal moral guidelinesÃ¢â¬âharming someone, stealing, conning, and lying are generally rejected. Breaking the law and disregarding the safety of oneself or others would also fall on the societal Ã¢â¬Å"donÃ¢â¬â¢tÃ¢â¬ list. While most people find it fairly easy to live within the bounds that society sets (or at least feel guilty when they donÃ¢â¬â¢t), people with an antisocial personality disorder find it significantly more difficult. This disorder, also commonly known as psychopathy or sociopathy, is rather difficult to deal withÃ¢â¬âand rather fascinating to study. In my experience, there is a serious social stigma attached to antisocial personality disorder. When I think of this disorder, or of the term Ã¢â¬Å"psychopath,Ã¢â¬ t here is a learned connection that immediately goes to danger and fear. In the media and Hollywood, people with this disorder are connected with many of the most heinous crimesÃ¢â¬âserial murders, rape, highly successful scam operations. Although the traits associated with antisocial personality disorder make sense with these types of crimes, it is not nearly as common as televisionÃ and movies make it seem. This general misconception is one reason that I was interested in studying this disorder. The second reason that I was so interested in studying this disorder was a thought that I had one day while discussing the high levels of criminal behavior within the population of people with antisocial personality disorder. Although they often participate in criminal activity, there is something wrong with their mind that does not allow them to process their actions the same way I am able to process my actions. The thought struck me that if I could lie to get ahead and I did not feel an ounce of guilt (because I had no capacity for guilt), even though I knew it was wrong, would I do it? I know that there is a still a choiceÃ¢â¬âbut I think that the disorder these people have necessitates a shift in our perspective of their actions. It was this thought that really led me to want to have a much more full understanding of this disorder. Historical and Diagnostic Features The causes of antisocial personality disorder, like many other personality disorders, are difficult to pinpoint. One reason for this is because many people with these disorders do not seek help until they have had the problem for years, and they still may not recognize that anything is wrongÃ¢â¬âoften, it is the distress of other people in their lives that eventually causes them to seek help. Because of this delay in treatment, it is not easy to study people with personality disorders from the onset of their problem (Durand & Barlow, 2013). However, there is definitely some sort of biological connection. The American Psychiatric Press Review of Psychology: Volume 11 states, Ã¢â¬Å"There is little doubt that there exists a genetic predisposition to antisocial personality disorder, as indicated by a variety of adoption, family history, and twin studies.Ã¢â¬ (Tasman, 1992, p. 67). There are also significant ties to sociocultural factors, which was researched in the Cambridge Study of Delinquent Development. This study showed several factors such as a convicted parent, large family size, low intelligence, a young mother, and a disrupted family which correlated with later antisocial personalities. (Farrington, 2000). Although it is hard to pinpoint a cause of this disorder, we are fairly sure that it originates in childhood and follows a chronic course through adulthood. Despite the fact that it probably originates in childhood, antisocial personality disorder cannot beÃ diagnosed until a person is 18. For children who tend to violate societal norms, there is the diagnosis of conduct disorder; many adults who are diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder were diagnosed with conduct disorder as a child (Durand & Barlow, 2013). Although antisocial personality disorder is chronic, it does seem to wane as a person gets older, especially around the age of forty. While this remission is most evident in the lessening of criminal behavior, it is also likely that the full spectrum of antisocial behaviors as well as substance abuse will go down. (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013). The DSM-5 outlines the main symptoms that are prevalent in antisocial personality disorder and says, Ã¢â¬Å" The essential feature of antisocial personality disorder is pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthoodÃ¢â¬ (APA, 2013). Symptoms of this disorder include frequent breaching of law, deceitfulness (lying to and conning others for personal gain), impulsiveness, irritability, aggressiveness, recklessness, and irresponsibility. Furthermore, there is an apparent lack of remorse for having caused harm to another person (APA, 2013). This set of symptoms found within someone who is at least 18 years of age and shown signs of conduct disorder from the age of 15 merits a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder. However, a mental health professional should always exhaust all of their options when diagnosing. In the case of antisocial personality disorder, it is also possible that the involved symptoms only show up within the course of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder; if this is the case it should not be diagnosed as a personality disorder. Substance abuse can also be associated with these symptoms. If this is the case, a clinician should examine whether or not antisocial behavior was exhibited in childhood and have continued into adulthood. If not, it is more likely a substance abuse disorder. If so, and the substance abuse also began in childhood, there may be a double diagnosis necessitated. When diagnosing any personality disorder, it is important to look closely at the distinguishing features, because several personality disorders can share very similar traits. If all the features are met for two or more disorders, all can be diagnosed as comorbid disorders. Finally, because antisocial personality is closely correlated to criminal activity, it is necessary to see that antisocial personality featuresÃ accompany the criminal actÃ¢â¬âotherwise, it is simply criminal behavior (APA, 2013). It is often this criminal behavior aspect of this disorder that brings it into the public eye. Jack Pemment (2012) speaking about psychopaths in our culture wrote, Ã¢â¬Å"Despite inflicting terror into our hearts with the idea of a remorseless killer who is Ã¢â¬ËprogrammedÃ¢â¬â¢ to kill, they are also heralded as intrinsically fascinatingÃ¢â¬ (p. 1). While these people may be fascinating, it is important to remember that antisocial personalities often are associated with low economic status and urban settings. Those who exhibit antisocial behavior are often coming from a rough environment, and it is important that clinicians consider the social and economic background when assessing these individuals and making decisions about their diagnosis (APA, 2013). Based on criteria from former DSM manuals, the prevalence of antisocial personality disorder is between 0.2% and 3.3%. This prevalence is higher in samples of people who come from hard socioeconomic or challenging sociocultur al background. The prevalence among populations such as males who abuse alcohol, patients at substance abuse clinics, and prisons is disproportionately high, sometimes greater than 70% (APA, 2013). For those who have this disorder, prognosis is not particularly positive. This is a chronic disorder, and to date there are no cures like we have for other psychological disorders, and there have been very few success stories treating antisocial adults with behavioral therapy (Durand & Barlow, 2013). However, the level of dysfunction involved seems to go down significantly after a long period of timeÃ¢â¬âRobins and Regier (1991) found in their study that on average, from first to last symptom, the disorder lasts 19 years. This general pattern of remission over time is the most positive prognostic factor for this disorder. Part of the reason that prognosis is so low is that treatment for adults with antisocial personality disorder is particularly difficult. Firstly, people with disorder almost never identify themselves as in need of treatment, and therefore they do not ever go; Meloy (n.d.) states that only one in seven will ever discuss their disorder with a doctor. For those who do go to treatment, it is still difficult to achieve results. Beyond that, seemingly positive results seen may even be faultyÃ¢â¬âa characteristic of people with this disorder is lying and exhibiting manipulative behavior, so it is hard to tell whether or not therapy is working. In fact, one study has shown that those who were showing the most signs of success in therapy were the ones who were actually relapsing in undesirable behavior the mostÃ¢â¬âthey had just learned what they needed to say to the therapist to get good remarks, and they were able to simulate it well (Bennett, 2011). While there has been no Ã¢â¬Å"miracle drugÃ¢â¬ for the treatment of antisocial personality disorder, there has been some slight pharmacological treatment success. The successes in this realm have been primarily with the symptoms of aggression and impulsiveness. Lithium (a medication often used for bipolar disorder) has been shown to reduce aggressive impulsive episodes. A drug called Divalproex has seen some success in measurements of irritability, verbal assault, and assault against objects. While these may help, it is still not a treatment that leads to significant recovery and long-term success in treating this disorder (Bennett, 2011). Nothing has been a tried and true treatment for this disorder, but it has been shown that early intervention can help prevent full-blown symptoms later on. Early intervention seems to be the key in the success of these treatment plansÃ¢â¬âit seems as though once a person is an adult, it is hard to treat the symptoms of their personality disorder (Durand & Barlow, 2013). Psychological interventions like family and cognitive behavioral therapy have seen significant success. Family therapy gives participants skills to cope with their family and other issues, and helps to improve parenting,skills, often by encouraging support of the child and reducing stress within the home. Cognitive behavioral interventions are a imed at teaching problem-solving and social skills which helps affected individuals maintain a more normal level of function later on (Bennett, 2011). Personal Critique In doing this research, I learned that this disorder is similar to, but not nearly as drastic as, the idea that I had of it before. I had always thought that this was an extremely rare disorder (still not incredibly common, but more so than I thought), and that those that did have it were bound to exhibit some sort of cold, calculated, criminal behavior. Although many are caught up in criminal activity and do things that hurt those around them (for example, lying to and stealing from people that love them), they are not often doing things like committing serial murders. I also learned from one article I read that there are definite, biological differences in theÃ brains of people with antisocial personalities and the brains of normal, healthy people. I think this is very interesting because in my opinion this further validates the disorder. If people have legitimate differences in the structure of their brain, they are truly suffering from an illness that there may be nothing that they can do about. It may also explain why treatment that works on many other psychological disorders does not work as well for people with this disorder. The biggest challenge that mental health experts have with diagnosing this disorder is that people who have it do not believe that they have anything wrong with them, and therefore they do not come in for treatment. It is impossible to diagnose if the mental health expert doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t get the chance. Second to this, the biggest challenge would be that the disorder itself is characterized by manipulation and lying, so a client may not be honest with a therapist about what is going on psychologically, and they may be very good at the front that they put up. Antisocial personality disorder is most definitely a justifiable disorder. I think that there have been enough cases (particularly the few drastic ones) in which this disorder has clearly represented itself. Although this disorder may not cause percieved distress to the individual, it still limits them from having a healthy human experience, and it often causes significant distress in the lives of those who love the individual wit h the disorder. Finally, as I said before, I think that the brain research that has been conducted solidifies the existence of the disorder, and it most definitely should be included in the DSM-5 as well as future versions. It saddens me that there are not currently any viable treatment options for this disorder. As someone wanting to pursue a career in mental health, I would hate to have a client that I was absolutely unable to help. I hope that in the near future we will either find a form of therapy that will work for those already affected, or that we will be able to more successfully catch and curb these behaviors at a young age so that these individuals have a chance to lead successful, healthy lives. Referencs American Psychiatric Assosiciation. (2013). Diagnositc and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Publishing. Bennett, P. (2011). Abnormal and Clinical Psychology: An Introductory Textbook. Maidenhead, Berkshire, England: McGraw Hill, Open University Press. Durand, V.M., & Barlow, D. H. (2013). Essentials of Abnormal Psychology, Sixth Edition. Australia, et al: Wadworth Cengage Learning. Farrington, D.P. (2000). Psychosocial predictors of adult antisocial personality and adult convictions, Behavioral Science and the Law, 18, 605. Pemment, J. (2012, Oct. 16). The neurobiology of antisocial personality disorder: The quest for rehabitation and treatment. Aggression and Violent Behavior. Retrieved from http://nueroscience.olemiss.edu. Robins L, & Regier, D. (1991). Psychiatric Disorders in America. New York, NY: Free Press. Tasman, A. & Riba, M. B. (Ed). (1992). American Psychiatric Press Review of Psychology (Vol. 11). American Psychiatric Publishing.
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
a. What is your understanding of the notions of capitalism and socialism? Capitalism and socialism are opposing schools of thought in economics and the role of government. Socialists believe economic inequality is bad for society, and the government is responsible for reducing it via programs that benefit the poor (e.g., free public education, free or subsidized healthcare, social security for the elderly, higher taxes on the rich). On the other hand, capitalists believe that the government does not use economic resources as efficiently as private enterprises do, and therefore society is better off with the free market determining economic winners and losers. b. What is an Ã¢â¬ËideologyÃ¢â¬â¢? An ideology is a belief or set of beliefs, on which people, social class, or countries base their think, actions, and view the world. Marx and Engels began to use the term Ã¢â¬Å"ideologyÃ¢â¬ as refer to any set of belief-system as well as a normative criteria. c. 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